Abraham Shadd, abolitionist born


Abraham D. Shadd
Date: 
Mon, 1801-03-02

*Abraham Schadd was born on this date in 1801. He was a Black Abolitionist, Businessman, and Community Organizer He was one of Delaware's most significant Black leaders of the 19th century. Abraham Doras Schadd was born in Mill Creek Hundred and the father of 13 children. He earned a successful living as a shoemaker, a trade he learned from his father. He acquired property in Wilmington. In 1816, soon after the American Colonization Society was organized, Abraham Schadd joined with other black leaders such as William Anderson and Peter Spencer to organize forces against the "colonization scheme."

In the 1830s, Blacks hosted several national conventions to protest racism and repression. At the first convention in Philadelphia, Forty delegates from nine states attended. Abraham Schadd was the Delaware representative. The major purpose of the convention was to establish a colony for Blacks in Canada. He and the other leaders saw no need to go back to Africa since Africans had aided in the building of America by "the sweat of their brow." They had as much right to stay in America as other immigrants. In July 1831, the anti-colonization black leaders alerted the black citizens to stay in Delaware until circumstances improved. A clear indication of his commitment and leadership, Schadd was elected president of the National Convention in 1833. As president of that body, he emphasized education, thrift, and hard work to improve the conditions of Blacks.

As an anti-slavery critic, Schadd made his views known and became a subscription agent for William Lloyd Garrison's anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator. Schadd also served as a delegate to the American Anti-Slavery Society (1835, 1836). In 1836, Schadd was living in West Chester and was taking "an active role in Underground Railroad activities," working in concert with the local Quakers. In 1851, Schadd, with his 13 children, relocated to North Buxton in Ontario, where he purchased 200 acres of land in a Black communal settlement. He remained there, an active mason, civic, and community leader, and in 1858 he was elected to the Raleigh Township Commission.

The life Abraham Schadd led became a model for several of his children. His oldest daughter, Mary Ann Schadd (1823-1893), became well known as an educator, lawyer, and journalist. The Delaware born heroine attended a Quaker-based school in West Chester, Pennsylvania and later became an instructor for black youth in Wilmington. Several other members of the Schadd family excelled: I. D. Schadd served in the Mississippi Legislature from 1871-1874; Abraham W. Schadd was a graduate of Howard Law School; Garrison Schadd became a wealthy farmer; and Emaline Schadd became a professor at Howard University.

By the time of his death in 1882, Abraham Schadd had presented himself as an imposing force against the evils of slavery. He could look back at himself and his work as a Black abolitionist, Underground Railroad supporter, Delaware's delegate to National Negro Conventions, President of the National Convention for the Improvement of Free People of Color, pioneer in Black settlements in Canada, civic leader, and entrepreneur. His legacy and perseverance was passed on to his family. His deeds and actions for fellow humans entitle him to be ranked among the top Black leaders of the 19th century. The Schadd family represents one of the premier Black families of Delaware. Daniel Hill, in The Freedom Seekers, reports that the family descended from Hans Schadd who was born in Cassel, Germany about 1725. Hans served in Braddock's army in 1755 and ultimately settled in Westchester (now West Chester), Pennsylvania.

References:
Colin A. Thompson, Blacks in Deep Snow (Don Mills, Ontario: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1979);
Joseph Mensah, Black Canadians (Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 2002);

Person / name: 

Shadd, Abraham