The Black YMCA, a community and a home
Black YMCA, Roanoke, VA. (1891)
*On this date in 1853, the first Black Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) was organized. The YMCA has long been a source for building community spirit and a sense of social responsibility among Black Christian men.
When the YMCA movement began in America in 1851, Black men were excluded from membership based on local practices of segregation. In 1854, when they joined with those from Canada to form the Confederation of North American YMCAs, U.S. racial policies grew to a serious issue. Slavery and the Civil War dissolved the Confederation and in America the YMCA stood by its assertion that local association's were autonomous bodies and could govern themselves. African-American men saw possibilities within the YMCA despite its failure to take a stand on discrimination.
The first Black YMCA was organized in Washington D. C. and lasted through the Civil War. After emancipation black associations were founded in Charleston, S.C. and New York City among other cities. This occurrence, the interest of newly freed slaves, and the growth of YMCAs among black college students convinced the national YMCA to encourage the formation of black branches.
This movement began to thrive when the first Black International Secretary for Colored Work was employed in 1891. William A. Hunton, who had worked in black YMCA branches in Ottawa, Canada, and Norfolk, VA., dedicated his life to the expansion of YMCA work among Black men. His staff grew to include Jesse Moorland, Channing H. Tobias and others. This group was against segregation in YMCA work yet understood the positive aspects of having the space and time to train young Black men for leadership through voluntary and paid positions at the “Y.”
World War I was a turning point for the YMCA, it was a time when the organization performed successful work with Black soldiers; dealing with health issues and on literacy training. Following the war the YMCA began to reassess its racial policies and encourage interracial dialogue. Yet it was not until 1946 that its national organization urged local branches to desegregate.
Desegregation closed many all-Black branches however the national YMCA has since remained a force in black communities. The work of the "Y" has expanded to include both women and men of all religious backgrounds. Local branches sponsor summer camps, residence halls, adult education, job training, and a number of other activities and services. The YMCA continues to be relevant in America because of its standing commitment to creating functional communities and because of its ability to modify its approach in changing times.
The Encyclopedia of African-American Heritage
by Susan Altman
Copyright 1997, Facts on File, Inc. New York